“…this recovery will be more gradual than those in the past. Magazine advertising growth is not expected to surpass gross domestic product (GDP) growth until 2005. (In the past it has been typical for magazine ad spending to outpace the GDP’s growth). And this growth will be less potent than what followed the 1991 recession, as a result of the evaporation of dot-com and technology ad dollars and an increasingly competitive ad market. As part of its justification for portraying a brighter future for the magazine business, VSS credits the industry for undertaking research initiatives and marketing campaigns designed to better sell the effectiveness of the medium. In addition, publishers’ increasing openness to pursuing ad opportunities that go beyond straight insertions has helped.